ObenLinksMedizin für Esel&MulisObenRechts
Aktualisiert :
2011-10-16
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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Donkeys
(PDF on IVIS.org)
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Sedation
Unlike mules, donkeys are usually well sedated by any of the tranquilizers and sedatives used at the same dose as in the horse. A caveat to this, however, is that the dose of sedatives and tranquilizers used in horses varies greatly with the breed, condition, and amount of anxiety present when the drug is given. Feral or unbroken horses may require twice (if given IV) or three times (if given intramuscularly) the normal dose of a sedative as would be given a well-handled horse. Such is the case for donkeys too. Although there is no scientific evidence, clinical experience shows that different sizes and types of donkeys respond differently to sedatives; in the author’s opinion (P. van Dijk), the Mediterranean type is more sensitive to sedative drugs and needs a lower dose.

Various combinations of xylazine (0.6 - 1.0 mg/kg, IV or IM) with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg, IV or IM) or butorphanol (0.02 - 0.04 mg/kg IV); detomidine (0.005 - 0.02 mg/kg, IV or IM) and butorphanol, or buprenorphine, have all been used with relatively good success, either for standing procedures (combined with local anesthesia) or before general anesthesia. The combination of etorphine with acepromazine and reversal with diprenorphine, should be used cautiously in the donkey [11]. The donkey may metabolize diprenorphine to active agonist, thereby "relapsing" into a sedated state.
In Utrecht, nalbuphine (0.1 mg/kg) or methadone (0.1 mg/kg) is combined with sedation to provide analgesia; following legislation, methadone should be the opioid of choice. The authors do not routinely use an anticholinergic as premedication in donkeys.

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Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values in the Donkey (Equus asinus) in Mexico
(PDF on IVIS.org)
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Table 1. Analyte of the red cell line of donkeys (Equus asinus) of different genders
  Average Standard Deviation Recommended Reference Values
Packed cell volume (L/L) 0.35 0.050 0.34 to 0.37
Erythrocytes (X 1012 /L) 5.9 1.04 5.7 to 6.3
Mean corpuscular volume (fL) 60.1 9.23 57.4 to 62.7
Fibrinogen (g/L) 2.9 1.33 1.00 to 6.8
Plasma proteins (g/L) 72.8 5.81 71.2 to 74.5
Thrombocytes (X 109/L) 542 231.5 245 to 1195

Table 2. Analyte of the white cell line of donkeys (Equus asinus) of different genders
  Average Standard Deviation Recommended Reference Values
Leukocytes (X 109/L) 11.7 2.90 10.34 to 12.6
Neutrophils (mature) (X 109/L) 5.5 1.77 1.8 to 9.2
Lymphocytes (X 109/L) 5.3 2.39 4.6 to 6.0
Monocytes (X 109/L) 0.3 0.31 0.04 to 1.2
Eosinophils (X 109/L) 0.5 0.49 0 to 1.8
Basophils 0 0 0

Table 3. Analytes of the biochemical values of donkey (Equus asinus) of different genders
  Average Standard Deviation
Recommended Reference Values
Albumin
27.4
4.96 26.06 to 28.82
Asparate aminotransferase (AST) (IU/L) 336 107.4 197 to 612
Total Bilirubin (TB) (mmol/L) 2.93 1 1.47 to 5.61
Conjugated Bilirubin (CB) (mmol/L) 1.95 0.90 1.66 to 2.25
Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) (mmol/L) 0.869 0.48 0.20 to 2.21
CB/UCB 3.53 3.74 0.59 to 15.69
Calcium (mmol/L) 3.02 0.26 2.95 to 3.09
Ca/P 2.7 0.51 2.57 to 2.85
Chloride (mmol/L) 106 10.49 92 to 133
Creatinine (µmol/L) 87.5 15.80 83.17 to 91.92
Creatine kinase (CK) (UI/L) 200 73 181 to 221
Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.141 0.2 0.61 to 1.67
Gammaglutamyl-transferase (GGT) (IU/L) 54 35.69 21 to 177
Globulins (g/L) 42 6.06 31.5 to 59.3
Glucose (mmol/L) 3.96 1.03 2.00 to 6.62
HCO3 Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 20 2.70 19.8 to 21.3
Sodium (mmol/L) 141 10.57 123 to 168
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.36 0.63 4.19 to 4.54
Urea (mmol/L) 5.05 1.38 2.98 to 8.15
Organic Acid (mmol/L) 18.7 3.97 19.92 to 26.90

Table 4. Proposed reference range of hematological parameters of donkeys, compared with the reference range of horses, used in the section of Clinical Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico (FMVZ-UNAM)
  Proposed Reference Range of Donkeys Reference Range of Horses
PCV (L/L) 0.34 to 0.37 0.32 to 0.52
Erythrocytes 5.7 to 6.3 6.5 to 12.5
MCV (fL) 57.4 to 62.7 34 to 58
Fibrinogen (g/L) 1.00 to 6.8 < 5
Total plasma protein (g/L) 71.2 to 74.5 60 to 80
Platelets (X 109/L) 245 to 1,195 100 to 600
Leukocytes (X 109/L) 10.9 to 12.6 5.5 to 12.5
Mature Neutrophils (X109/L) 1.8 to 9.2 2.7 to 6.7
Band Neutrophils (X109/L) 0 0
Lymphocytes (X109/L) 4.6 to 6.0 1.5 to 7.5
Monocytes (X109/L) 0.04 to 1.2 0 to 0.8
Eosinophils (X109/L) 0 to 1.8 0 to 1.2

Table 5. Proposed reference range of biochemical parameters of donkeys, compared with reference ranges of horses, used in the section of Clinical Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico (FMVZ-UNAM)
   Proposed Reference Range of Donkeys Reference Range of Horses
Glucose (mmol/L) 2.0 to 6.62 3.4 to 6.2
Urea (mmol/L) 2.98 to 8.15 4.1 to 7.6
Creatinine (µmol/L) 83.17 to 91.92 88 to 156
Total Bilirubin (µmol/L) 1.47 to 5.61 14.0 to 54.0
Conjugated Bilirubin (µmol/L) 1.66 to 2.25 6.0 to 12.0
Unconjugated Bilirubin (µmol/L) 0.20 to 2.21 4.0 to 44.0
AST (U/L) 197 to 612 <450
GGT (U/L) 21 to 177 <22
CK (U/L) 181 to 221 <425
Total Proteins (g/L) 54.87 to 95 53 to 71
Albumin (g/L) 26 to 28 31 to 39
Globulin (g/L) 31.5 to 59.3 20 to 35
A/G 0.62 to 0.69 0.89 to 1.65
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.95 to 3.09 2.79 to 3.22
Phosphorus (mmol/L) 0.61 to 1.67 0.77 to 1.67
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.19 to 4.54 3.36 to 4.99
Sodium (mmol/L) 123 to 168 132 to 141
Chloride (mmol/L) 92 to 133 98 to 105
Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 19.8 to 21.3 27 - 34
Anion Gap (mmol/L) 10.96 to 26.90 4.0 to 13
Strong Ion Difference (mmol/L) 28 to 43 30 to 40
Osmolality (mOsm/Kg) 247 to 327 Not determined
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Anatomical Differences of the Donkey and Mule (PDF on IVIS.org)
IN DEPTH: MULE/DONKEY MEDICINE AND SURGERY
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The donkey is not just a smaller, inferior type of horse. To those who have taken the time to get to know him, the donkey is a unique equine of special qualities....
...Donkeys are not just horses with long ears.

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Skin Disorders of Donkeys
(PDF on IVIS.org)
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The donkey has for centuries been regarded as a robust and willing servant of man and most veterinarians accept that as a species it suffers rather fewer skin diseases than most other domestic animals. However, this may be more in the perception than the actuality because the donkey tends to show few signs of cutaneous discomfort. The skin of the donkey is well adapted to the rigors of direct sunlight and extremes of heat. The donkey has a specific adaptive ability to cope with desert and other high temperature conditions. They preserve water by sweating against the skin and limit the loss of water by allowing the body core temperature to rise significantly. The latter adaptation allows the donkey to restrict the need for heat loss by evaporation and the cooling under the hair coat maximizes the cooling efficiency of sweating. These properties may give the impression that the donkey's skin is hardy and able to take almost any insult but quite the reverse is true. Nevertheless, the skin of the donkey may possibly be subject to fewer of the infectious diseases that afflict other equidae.

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Konzentrationen von Sexualsteroiden im Blutplasma männlicher und weiblicher Esel
G. Schuler, A. Bernhardt, B. Hoffmann
Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Gynäkologie und Andrologie der Groß- und Kleintiere mit Tierärztlicher Ambulanz Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen
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